jueves, 25 de mayo de 2017

RETRATO || A Whole New Jupiter: First Science Results from NASA’s Juno Mission | NASA

A Whole New Jupiter: First Science Results from NASA’s Juno Mission | NASA



A Whole New Jupiter: 

First Science Results from 

NASA’s Juno Mission

This image shows Jupiter’s south pole, as seen by NASA’s Juno spacecraft from an altitude of 32,000 miles
This image shows Jupiter’s south pole, as seen by NASA’s Juno spacecraft from an altitude of 32,000 miles (52,000 kilometers). The oval features are cyclones, up to 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) in diameter. Multiple images taken with the JunoCam instrument on three separate orbits were combined to show all areas in daylight, enhanced color, and stereographic projection.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Betsy Asher Hall/Gervasio Robles
Early science results from NASA’s Juno mission to Jupiter portray the largest planet in our solar system as a complex, gigantic, turbulent world, with Earth-sized polar cyclones, plunging storm systems that travel deep into the heart of the gas giant, and a mammoth, lumpy magnetic field that may indicate it was generated closer to the planet’s surface than previously thought.
“We are excited to share these early discoveries, which help us better understand what makes Jupiter so fascinating,” said Diane Brown, Juno program executive at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "It was a long trip to get to Jupiter, but these first results already demonstrate it was well worth the journey.”
Juno launched on Aug. 5, 2011, entering Jupiter’s orbit on July 4, 2016. The findings from the first data-collection pass, which flew within about 2,600 miles (4,200 kilometers) of Jupiter's swirling cloud tops on Aug. 27, are being published this week in two papers in the journal Science, as well as 44 papers in Geophysical Research Letters.
“We knew, going in, that Jupiter would throw us some curves,” said Scott Bolton, Juno principal investigator from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “But now that we are here we are finding that Jupiter can throw the heat, as well as knuckleballs and sliders. There is so much going on here that we didn’t expect that we have had to take a step back and begin to rethink of this as a whole new Jupiter.”
Among the findings that challenge assumptions are those provided by Juno’s imager, JunoCam. The images show both of Jupiter's poles are covered in Earth-sized swirling storms that are densely clustered and rubbing together.
We're puzzled as to how they could be formed, how stable the configuration is, and why Jupiter’s north pole doesn't look like the south pole,” said Bolton. “We're questioning whether this is a dynamic system, and are we seeing just one stage, and over the next year, we're going to watch it disappear, or is this a stable configuration and these storms are circulating around one another?”
Another surprise comes from Juno’s Microwave Radiometer (MWR), which samples the thermal microwave radiation from Jupiter’s atmosphere, from the top of the ammonia clouds to deep within its atmosphere. The MWR data indicates that Jupiter’s iconic belts and zones are mysterious, with the belt near the equator penetrating all the way down, while the belts and zones at other latitudes seem to evolve to other structures. The data suggest the ammonia is quite variable and continues to increase as far down as we can see with MWR, which is a few hundred miles or kilometers. 
Prior to the Juno mission, it was known that Jupiter had the most intense magnetic field in the solar system. Measurements of the massive planet’s magnetosphere, from Juno’s magnetometer investigation (MAG), indicate that Jupiter’s magnetic field is even stronger than models expected, and more irregular in shape. MAG data indicates the magnetic field greatly exceeded expectations at 7.766 Gauss, about 10 times stronger than the strongest magnetic field found on Earth.
“Juno is giving us a view of the magnetic field close to Jupiter that we’ve never had before,” said Jack Connerney, Juno deputy principal investigator and the lead for the mission’s magnetic field investigation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “Already we see that the magnetic field looks lumpy: it is stronger in some places and weaker in others. This uneven distribution suggests that the field might be generated by dynamo action closer to the surface, above the layer of metallic hydrogen. Every flyby we execute gets us closer to determining where and how Jupiter’s dynamo works.”
Juno also is designed to study the polar magnetosphere and the origin of Jupiter's powerful auroras—its northern and southern lights. These auroral emissions are caused by particles that pick up energy, slamming into atmospheric molecules. Juno’s initial observations indicate that the process seems to work differently at Jupiter than at Earth.
Juno is in a polar orbit around Jupiter, and the majority of each orbit is spent well away from the gas giant. But, once every 53 days, its trajectory approaches Jupiter from above its north pole, where it begins a two-hour transit (from pole to pole) flying north to south with its eight science instruments collecting data and its JunoCam public outreach camera snapping pictures. The download of six megabytes of data collected during the transit can take 1.5 days.
“Every 53 days, we go screaming by Jupiter, get doused by a fire hose of Jovian science, and there is always something new,” said Bolton. “On our next flyby on July 11, we will fly directly over one of the most iconic features in the entire solar system -- one that every school kid knows -- Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. If anybody is going to get to the bottom of what is going on below those mammoth swirling crimson cloud tops, it’s Juno and her cloud-piercing science instruments.”
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for NASA. The principal investigator is Scott Bolton of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. The Juno mission is part of the New Frontiers Program managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, in Denver, built the spacecraft.
More information on the Juno mission is available at:
Follow the mission on Facebook and Twitter at:
-end-
Dwayne Brown / Laurie Cantillo
Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1726 / 202-358-1077
dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov / laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov
DC Agle
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-9011
agle@jpl.nasa.gov
Nancy Neal Jones
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
301-286-0039 
nancy.n.jones@nasa.gov
Deb Schmid
Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio
210-522-2254
dschmid@swri.org
Last Updated: May 25, 2017
Editor: Karen Northon

MARAVILLAS MARCIANAS 9 || An Oblique View of Uplifted Rocks | NASA

An Oblique View of Uplifted Rocks | NASA



An Oblique View of 

Uplifted Rocks

Central uplifted region of an impact crater on Mars
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows part of the central uplifted region of an impact crater more than 50 kilometers wide. That means that the bedrock has been raised from a depth of about 5 kilometers, exposing ancient materials.
The warm (yellowish-reddish) colors mark the presence of minerals altered by water, whereas the bluish and greenish rocks have escaped alteration. Sharp-crested ridges and smooth areas are young windblown materials.
This is a stereo pair with ESP_013198_1660.
The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 59.6 centimeters (23.5 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 179 centimeters (70.4 inches) across are resolved. North is up.
The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.
Last Updated: May 25, 2017
Editor: Tony Greicius

Plasma Sounds at Jupiter



Plasma Sounds at Jupiter


NASA’s Juno spacecraft has observed plasma wave signals from Jupiter’s ionosphere. This display is a frequency-time spectrogram. The results in this figure show an increasing plasma density as Juno descended into Jupiter’s ionosphere during its close pass by Jupiter on February 2, 2017. More: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/a-whole-new-jupiter-first-science-results-from-nasa-s-juno-mission The intensity, or amplitude, of the waves is displayed based on the color scale shown on the right. The actual observed frequencies of these emissions approach 150 kHz, which is above the human hearing range. To bring these signals into the human audio range, the playback speed has been slowed by a factor of about 60. The momentary, nearly pure tones follow a scale related to the electron density, and are likely associated with an interaction between the Juno spacecraft and the charged particles in Jupiter’s ionosphere. The exact source of these discrete tones is currently being investigated. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/Univ. of Iowa

NO QUITES TU ATENCIÓN DEL SUBSISTEMA JÚPITER || Sequence of Juno Spacecraft's Close Approach to Jupiter | NASA

Sequence of Juno Spacecraft's Close Approach to Jupiter | NASA





Sequence of Juno 

Spacecraft's Close 

Approach to Jupiter

Juno telecon image
This sequence of enhanced-color images shows how quickly the viewing geometry changes for NASA’s Juno spacecraft as it swoops by Jupiter. The images were obtained by JunoCam.
Once every 53 days the Juno spacecraft swings close to Jupiter, speeding over its clouds. In just two hours, the spacecraft travels from a perch over Jupiter’s north pole through its closest approach (perijove), then passes over the south pole on its way back out. This sequence shows 14 enhanced-color images.
The first image on the left shows the entire half-lit globe of Jupiter, with the north pole approximately in the center. As the spacecraft gets closer to Jupiter, the horizon moves in and the range of visible latitudes shrinks. The third and fourth images in this sequence show the north polar region rotating away from our view while a band of wavy clouds at northern mid-latitudes comes into view. By the fifth image of the sequence the band of turbulent clouds is nicely centered in the image. The seventh and eighth images were taken just before the spacecraft was at its closest point to Jupiter, near Jupiter’s equator. Even though these two pictures were taken just four minutes apart, the view is changing quickly.
As the spacecraft crossed into the southern hemisphere, the bright “south tropical zone” dominates the ninth, 10th and 11th images. The white ovals in a feature nicknamed Jupiter’s “String of Pearls” are visible in the 12th and 13th images. In the 14th image Juno views Jupiter’s south poles.

Image Credit: NASA/SWRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstädt/Seán Doran
Last Updated: May 25, 2017
Editor: Sarah Loff
Jupiter

Star Gives Birth to Possible Black Hole in Hubble and Spitzer Images

NADA ES LO QUE PARECE || Collapsing Star Gives Birth to a Black Hole | NASA

Collapsing Star Gives Birth to a Black Hole | NASA





Collapsing Star Gives 

Birth to a Black Hole

Astronomers have watched as a massive, dying star was likely reborn as a black hole. It took the combined power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), and NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes to go looking for remnants of the vanquished star, only to find that it disappeared out of sight.
It went out with a whimper instead of a bang.
The star, which was 25 times as massive as our sun, should have exploded in a very bright supernova. Instead, it fizzled out—and then left behind a black hole.
A team of astronomers at The Ohio State University watched a star disappear and possibly become a black hole. Instead of becoming a black hole through the expected process of a supernova, the black hole candidate formed through a "failed supernova."
Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Katrina Jackson
"Massive fails" like this one in a nearby galaxy could explain why astronomers rarely see supernovae from the most massive stars, said Christopher Kochanek, professor of astronomy at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Eminent Scholar in Observational Cosmology.
As many as 30 percent of such stars, it seems, may quietly collapse into black holes — no supernova required.
"The typical view is that a star can form a black hole only after it goes supernova," Kochanek explained. "If a star can fall short of a supernova and still make a black hole, that would help to explain why we don’t see supernovae from the most massive stars."
two images showing a star disappearing from a field
This pair of visible-light and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope photos shows the giant star N6946-BH1 before and after it vanished out of sight by imploding to form a black hole. The left image shows the 25 solar mass star as it looked in 2007. In 2009, the star shot up in brightness to become over 1 million times more luminous than our sun for several months. But then it seemed to vanish, as seen in the right panel image from 2015. A small amount of infrared light has been detected from where the star used to be. This radiation probably comes from debris falling onto a black hole. The black hole is located 22 million light-years away in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946.
Credits: NASA, ESA, and C. Kochanek (OSU)
He leads a team of astronomers who published their latest results in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Among the galaxies they've been watching is NGC 6946, a spiral galaxy 22 million light-years away that is nicknamed the "Fireworks Galaxy" because supernovae frequently happen there — indeed, SN 2017eaw, discovered on May 14th, is shining near maximum brightness now. Starting in 2009, one particular star, named N6946-BH1, began to brighten weakly. By 2015, it appeared to have winked out of existence.
After the LBT survey for failed supernovas turned up the star, astronomers aimed the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes to see if it was still there but merely dimmed. They also used Spitzer to search for any infrared radiation emanating from the spot. That would have been a sign that the star was still present, but perhaps just hidden behind a dust cloud.
five images showing the sequence of a supernova
The doomed star, named N6946-BH1, was 25 times as massive as our sun. It began to brighten weakly in 2009. But, by 2015, it appeared to have winked out of existence. By a careful process of elimination, based on observations researchers eventually concluded that the star must have become a black hole. This may be the fate for extremely massive stars in the universe.
Credits: NASA, ESA, and P. Jeffries (STScI)
All the tests came up negative. The star was no longer there. By a careful process of elimination, the researchers eventually concluded that the star must have become a black hole.
It's too early in the project to know for sure how often stars experience massive fails, but Scott Adams, a former Ohio State student who recently earned his doctorate doing this work, was able to make a preliminary estimate.
"N6946-BH1 is the only likely failed supernova that we found in the first seven years of our survey. During this period, six normal supernovae have occurred within the galaxies we've been monitoring, suggesting that 10 to 30 percent of massive stars die as failed supernovae," he said.
"This is just the fraction that would explain the very problem that motivated us to start the survey, that is, that there are fewer observed supernovae than should be occurring if all massive stars die that way."
To study co-author Krzysztof Stanek, the really interesting part of the discovery is the implications it holds for the origins of very massive black holes — the kind that the LIGO experiment detected via gravitational waves. (LIGO is the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory.)
It doesn't necessarily make sense, said Stanek, professor of astronomy at Ohio State, that a massive star could undergo a supernova — a process which entails blowing off much of its outer layers — and still have enough mass left over to form a massive black hole on the scale of those that LIGO detected.
"I suspect it's much easier to make a very massive black hole if there is no supernova," he concluded.
Adams is now an astrophysicist at Caltech. Other co-authors were Ohio State doctoral student Jill Gerke and University of Oklahoma astronomer Xinyu Dai. Their research was supported by the National Science Foundation.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena, California. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.
The Large Binocular Telescope is an international collaboration among institutions in the United Sates, Italy and Germany.
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency). NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., in Washington, D.C.
Related Links:
 

Christopher Kochanek / Krzysztof Stanek
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
614-292-5954 / 614-292-3433
kochanek.1@osu.edu / stanek.32@osu.edu
Scott Adams
Caltech, Pasadena, California
626-395-8676
smadams@caltech.edu
Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
614-292-9475
gorder.1@osu.edu
Elizabeth Landau
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
818-354-6425
elizabeth.r.landau@jpl.nasa.gov
Ray Villard
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
410-338-4514
villard@stsci.edu
Last Updated: May 25, 2017
Editor: Karl Hille

NO QUITES TU ATENCIÓN DEL SUBSISTEMA SATURNO || Cassini Looks on as Solstice Arrives at Saturn | NASA

Cassini Looks on as Solstice Arrives at Saturn | NASA





Cassini Looks on as 

Solstice Arrives at Saturn

Saturn’s north-polar region from two time periods
These natural color views from Cassini show how the color of Saturn’s north-polar region changed between June 2013 and April 2017, as the northern hemisphere headed toward summer solstice.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI/Hampton Univ.
394218main_PIA11667_full.jpg
Cassini's view of Saturn during its 2009 equinox shows both the northern and southern hemispheres equally sunlit, with the north pole half in shadow. Since then, the sun has risen fully over the north, while the south has slipped into winter shadow.
Credits: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
pia12826.jpg
During its seven-year Solstice Mission, Cassini watched as a huge storm erupted and encircled Saturn. Scientists think storms like this are related, in part, to seasonal effects of sunlight on Saturn's atmosphere.
Credits: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
528788main_pia12810-full_full.jpg
Following Saturnian equinox in 2009, Cassini observed cloud activity on Titan shift from southern latitudes toward the equator, and eventually to the high north. Such observations have provided evidence of seasonal shifts in Titan's weather systems.
Credits: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
NASA's Cassini spacecraft still has a few months to go before it completes its mission in September, but the veteran Saturn explorer reaches a new milestone today. Saturn's solstice -- that is, the longest day of summer in the northern hemisphere and the shortest day of winter in the southern hemisphere -- arrives today for the planet and its moons. The Saturnian solstice occurs about every 15 Earth years as the planet and its entourage slowly orbit the sun, with the north and south hemispheres alternating their roles as the summer and winter poles.
Reaching the solstice, and observing seasonal changes in the Saturn system along the way, was a primary goal of Cassini's Solstice Mission -- the name of Cassini's second extended mission.
Cassini arrived at Saturn in 2004 for its four-year primary mission to study Saturn and its rings and moons. Cassini's first extended mission, from 2008 to 2010, was known as the Equinox Mission. During that phase of the mission, Cassini watched as sunlight struck Saturn's rings edge-on, casting shadows that revealed dramatic new ring structures. NASA chose to grant the spacecraft an additional seven-year tour, the Solstice Mission, which began in 2010.
"During Cassini's Solstice Mission, we have witnessed -- up close for the first time -- an entire season at Saturn," said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. "The Saturn system undergoes dramatic transitions from winter to summer, and thanks to Cassini, we had a ringside seat."
Saturn
During its Solstice Mission, Cassini watched a giant storm erupt and encircle the planet. The spacecraft also saw the disappearance of bluer hues that had lingered in the far north as springtime hazes began to form there. The hazes are part of the reason why features in Saturn's atmosphere are more muted in their appearance than those on Jupiter.
Data from the mission showed how the formation of Saturn's hazes is related to the seasonally changing temperatures and chemical composition of Saturn's upper atmosphere. Cassini researchers have found that some of the trace hydrocarbon compounds there -- gases like ethane, propane and acetylene -- react more quickly than others to the changing amount of sunlight over the course of Saturn's year.
Researchers were also surprised that the changes Cassini observed on Saturn didn't occur gradually. They saw changes occur suddenly, at specific latitudes in Saturn's banded atmosphere. "Eventually a whole hemisphere undergoes change, but it gets there by these jumps at specific latitude bands at different times in the season," said Robert West, a Cassini imaging team member at JPL.
Rings
Following equinox and continuing toward northern summer solstice, the sun rose ever higher above the rings' northern face. And as the sun rises higher, its light penetrates deeper into the rings, heating them to the warmest temperatures seen there during the mission. The solstice sunlight helps reveal to Cassini's instruments how particles clump together and whether the particles buried in the middle of the ring plane have a different composition or structure than the ones in the rings' outer layers.
Saturn's changing angle with respect to the sun also means the rings are tipped toward Earth by their maximum amount at solstice. In this geometry, Cassini's radio signal passes more easily and cleanly through the densest rings, providing even higher-quality data about the ring particles there.
Titan
Cassini has watched Saturn's largest moon, Titan, change with the seasons, with occasional dramatic outbursts of cloud activity. After observing methane storm clouds around Titan's south pole in 2004, Cassini watched giant storms transition to Titan's equator in 2010. Although a few northern clouds have begun to appear, scientists have since been surprised at how long it has taken for cloud activity to shift to the northern hemisphere, defying climate models that had predicted such activity should have started several years earlier.
"Observations of how the locations of cloud activity change and how long such changes take give us important information about the workings of Titan's atmosphere and also its surface, as rainfall and wind patterns change with the seasons too," said Elizabeth Turtle, a Cassini imaging team associate at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.
In 2013, Cassini observed a sudden and rapid buildup of haze and trace hydrocarbons in the south that were previously observed only in Titan's high north. This indicated to scientists that a seasonal reversal was underway, in which Titan’s main atmospheric circulation changes direction. This circulation was apparently channeling fresh hydrocarbon chemicals from closer to the equator toward the south pole, where they were safe from destruction by sunlight as that pole moved deeper into winter shadow.
Enceladus
For Enceladus, the most important seasonal change was the onset of winter darkness in the south. Although it meant Cassini could no longer take sunlit images of the geologically active surface, the spacecraft could more clearly observe the heat coming from within Enceladus itself. With the icy moon's south pole in shadow, Cassini scientists have been able to monitor the temperature of the terrain there without concern for the sun's influence. These observations are helping researchers to better understand the global ocean that lies beneath the surface. From the moon's south polar region, that hidden ocean sprays a towering plume of ice and vapor into space that Cassini has directly sampled.
Toward the Final Milestone
As Saturn's solstice arrives, Cassini is currently in the final phase of its long mission, called its Grand Finale. Over the course of 22 weeks from April 26 to Sept. 15, the spacecraft is making a series of dramatic dives between the planet and its icy rings. The mission is returning new insights about the interior of the planet and the origins of the rings, along with images from closer to Saturn than ever before. The mission will end with a final plunge into Saturn's atmosphere on Sept. 15.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.
More information about Cassini:
Preston Dyches
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-394-7013
preston.dyches@jpl.nasa.gov
2017-150
Last Updated: May 24, 2017
Editor: Tony Greicius

EXTENSIONES || New Horizons Deploys Global Team for Rare Look at Next Flyby Target | NASA

New Horizons Deploys Global Team for Rare Look at Next Flyby Target | NASA



New Horizons Kuiper Belt object encounter

New Horizons Deploys 

Global Team for Rare 

Look at Next Flyby Target

Projected path of the 2014 MU69 occultation shadow, across South America and the southern tip of Africa, on June 3.
First look: Projected path of the 2014 MU69 occultation shadow, across South America and the southern tip of Africa, on June 3.
Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI
On New Year’s Day 2019, more than 4 billion miles from home, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft will race past a small Kuiper Belt object known as 2014 MU69 – making this rocky remnant of planetary formation the farthest object ever encountered by any spacecraft.
But over the next six weeks, the New Horizons mission team gets an “MU69” preview of sorts – and a chance to gather some critical encounter-planning information – with a rare look at their target object from Earth.
On June 3, and then again on July 10 and July 17, MU69 will occult – or block the light from – three different stars, one on each date. To observe the June 3 “stellar occultation,” more than 50 team members and collaborators are deploying along projected viewing paths in Argentina and South Africa. They’ll fix camera-equipped portable telescopes on the occultation star and watch for changes in its light that can tell them much about MU69 itself.
“Our primary objective is to determine if there are hazards near MU69 – rings, dust or even satellites – that could affect our flight planning,” said New Horizons Principal Investigator Alan Stern, of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Boulder, Colorado. “But we also expect to learn more about its orbit and possibly determine its size and shape. All of that will help feed our flyby planning effort.”
What Are They Looking at?
In simplest terms, an astronomical occultation is when something moves in front of, or occults, something else. “When the moon passes in front of the sun and we have a solar eclipse, that's one kind of occultation,” said Joel Parker, a New Horizons co-investigator from SwRI. “If you're in the path of an eclipse, it means you're in the path of the shadow on Earth that’s created by the moon passing between us and the sun. If you're standing in the right place at the right time, the solar eclipse can last up to a few minutes.”
The team will have no such luxury with the MU69 occultations. Marc Buie, the New Horizons co-investigator from SwRI who is leading the occultation observations, said that because MU69 is so small – thought to be about 25 miles (40 kilometers) across – the occultations should only last about two seconds.  But scientists can learn a lot from even that, and observations from several telescopes that see different parts of the shadow can reveal information about an object’s shape as well as its brightness.

A Space Challenge
New Horizons team members prepare one of the new 16-inch telescopes for deployment to occultation observation sites
New Horizons team members prepare one of the new 16-inch telescopes for deployment to occultation observation sites in Argentina and South Africa.
Credits: Kerri Beisser
The mission team has 22 new, portable 16-inch (40-centimeter) telescopes at the ready, along with three others portables and over two-dozen fixed-base telescopes that will be located along the occultation path through Argentina and South Africa. But deciding exactly where to place them was a challenge. This particular Kuiper Belt object was discovered just three years ago, so its orbit is still largely unknown. Without a precise fix on the object’s position – or on the exact path its narrow shadow might take across Earth – the team is spacing the telescope teams along “picket fence lines,” one every 6 to 18 miles (10 or 25 kilometers), to increase the odds that at least one or more of the portable telescopes will catch the center of the event and help determine the size of MU69.
The other telescopes will provide multiple probes for debris that could be a danger to the fast-moving New Horizons spacecraft when it flies by MU69 at about 35,000 miles per hour (56,000 kilometers per hour), on Jan. 1, 2019.
“Deploying on two different continents also maximizes our chances of having good weather,” said New Horizons Deputy Project Scientist Cathy Olkin, from SwRI. “The shadow is predicted to go across both locations and we want observers at both, because we wouldn't want a huge storm system to come through and cloud us out — the event is too important and too fleeting to miss.”
The team gets help from above for the July 10 occultation, adding the powerful 100-inch (2.5-meter) telescope on NASA's airborne Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Enlisting SOFIA, with its vantage point above the clouds, takes the bad weather factor out of the picture. The plane also should be able to improve its measurements by maneuvering into the very center of the occultation shadow.
Insight for Encounter Planning
Any information on MU69, gathered from the skies or on the ground, is welcome. Carly Howett, deputy principal investigator of New Horizons' Ralph instrument, of SwRI, said so little is known about MU69 that the team is planning observations of a target it doesn’t fully understand – and time to learn more about the object is short. “We were only able to start planning the MU69 encounter after we flew by Pluto in 2015,” she said.  “That gives us two years, instead of almost seven years we had to plan the Pluto encounter. So it's a very different and, in many ways, more challenging flyby to plan.”
If weather cooperates and predicted targeting proves on track, the upcoming occultation observations could provide the first precise size and reflectivity measurements of MU69. These figures will be key to planning the flyby itself – knowing the size of the object and the reflectivity of its surface, for example, helps the team set exposure times on the spacecraft’s cameras and spectrometers.
“Spacecraft flybys are unforgiving,” Stern said. “There are no second chances. The upcoming occultations are valuable opportunity to learn something about MU69 before our encounter, and help us plan for a very unique flyby of a scientifically important relic of the solar system’s era of formation.”
Follow the observations in Argentina, South Africa and on board SOFIA on Facebook and Twitter using #mu69occ.
Last Updated: May 25, 2017
Editor: Bill Keeter

CAUSA & EFECTO según "el dispensador"... vaqueano de tempestades humanas (14)

el dispensador dice: tu espíritu es mucho más que tu vida... tu alma es mucho más que tu destino...  tu consciencia es mucho más que tu causa. MAYO 25, 2017.-
La imagen puede contener: nube, cielo, naturaleza y agua
el dispensador dice: no hay triunfos ni derrotas... no hay derrotas ni triunfos... dispones de un don, dispones de un talento, dispones de una meta... cuentas con tu voluntad... cuentas con tu esfuerzo... todo lo demás, es superfluo. MAYO 25, 2017.-
si no yerras, no aciertas... si no aciertas, no yerras... el acierto reside en el error... sin error, no hay acierto...
el acierto está en la causalidad de la intuición... 
el acierto jamás mora en la razón...
la intuición pertenece al ámbito de la consciencia y es el reflejo del karma...
la razón depende de las circunstancias y los miedos...
todo lo que razones resultará mal...
cuando te dejes llevar por el instinto, descubrirás que tu propio viento es el que te hace distinto...
La imagen puede contener: nube, cielo, naturaleza y agua
La imagen puede contener: nube, cielo, naturaleza y agua
Carmen Conde Sedemiuqse Esquimedes

La intuición ..-
Dreaming Tibet
La Intuición ..-
La única cosa realmente valiosa es la intuición”, Albert Einstein

La intuición es una poderosa brújula. Siempre marca la dirección de nuestro norte particular. Consciente o inconscientemente, guía muchas de nuestras decisiones. Todos la hemos sentido en algún momento, pero cada persona la vive de manera diferente. Para algunos habita en las entrañas, y para otros, en el corazón. Es la pulsión que nos informa de si estamos en el buen camino, sea cual sea nuestro objetivo. Nos conduce a través de la tormenta, nos ayuda a entendernos mejor y nos ofrece certezas que pocos datos pueden. Sin embargo, permanece oculta en un halo de misterio. Así, ¿qué es la intuición? ¿ Dónde se genera ? ¿Para qué sirve? Y ¿cómo podemos conectar con ella?

Según el diccionario, la intuición es una percepción clara e inmediata de una idea o situación, sin necesidad de razonamiento lógico. Una especie de relámpago de certeza que no requiere de pensamiento reflexivo ni análisis minucioso. Si bien no hay consenso en la comunidad científica sobre dónde se genera exactamente tan escurridiza cualidad, lo cierto es que resulta útil para nuestra supervivencia. Aunque no es infalible, nos facilita la toma de decisiones, especialmente en los momentos más importantes de nuestra vida. Es una llave capaz de abrir la cerradura de cualquier situación compleja, proponiéndonos una conducta determinada o una postura concreta. La magia de la intuición reside en la rapidez de las respuestas que nos ofrece. A diferencia del análisis racional, que requiere de tiempo, atención y esfuerzo, la intuición nos aporta soluciones inmediatas desde un marco mucho más amplio y sutil.

Por si fuera poco, nos muestra que sabemos más de lo que creemos que sabemos. De ahí la importancia de aprender a escucharla. Aunque no es garantía de que las cosas salgan como esperamos, nos promete que nuestras decisiones serán coherentes con la persona que somos, honrando nuestros valores esenciales. Está íntimamente relacionada con nuestra voz interior, por lo que cuanto más en contacto estemos con nosotros mismos, más podremos apreciarla. Para ello, tenemos que aprender a crear espacios de silencio.

La sabiduría del cuerpoProbamos por medio de la lógica, pero descubrimos por medio de la intuición”, Henri Poincaré

Por lo general, ante cualquier situación tendemos a empacharnos de datos que nos dan un escenario, un marco de probabilidades que nos ofrece una cierta seguridad. Antes de tomar una decisión, lo que buscamos es la respuesta correcta, el camino que nos llevará a conseguir lo que nos proponemos. El mejor resultado posible. Y para lograr acertar, nos basamos en los datos de los que disponemos. Asumimos que a más información, menos posibilidad de errar en nuestro criterio o nuestras decisiones. Y no nos suelen faltar fuentes donde nutrirnos. No en vano, vivimos en la era de la información, enchufados a la red. Pero la ecuación no siempre nos ofrece el resultado esperado. No todo lo podemos resolver desde un plano mental.

Según un estudio realizado en 2012 por el Dr. Barnaby Dunn, especialista del ‘Medical Research Council’ de Inglaterra, la intuición cuenta con particulares manifestaciones físicas. El experimento proponía a un grupo de sujetos que contara con la máxima exactitud posible los latidos de su corazón en distintos intervalos de tiempo. En los espacios de reposo, el Dr. Dunn les sugería jugar a un juego para pasar el rato. Dejaba cuatro barajas de cartas encima de la mesa y les invitaba a ir sacando cartas de las distintas barajas. Quien sacaba la carta más alta en cada ronda ganaba un premio en metálico. Lo que no sabían los integrantes del experimento es que las barajas estaban amañadas, dos tenían más cartas altas que las otras dos. Mientras los sujetos jugaban, un sensor registraba los cambios en sus latidos. Tras unas pocas rondas, el monitor mostraba una alteración en el latido del corazón cuando se acercaban a las barajas ‘malas’. El cuerpo, antes que la mente lo hiciera consciente, detectó la trampa.

Un equipo de científicos de la Universidad de Iowa condujo un estudio parecido, esta vez basado en la transpiración de las palmas de las manos. Encontraron que a los jugadores comenzaban a sudarles las manos cuando les tocaba sacar una carta de una de las dos barajas ‘malas’ sobre las 10 cartas, pero no comenzaban a sospechar del engaño hasta que habían cogido unas 50 cartas. Sus manos húmedas les estaban avisando mucho antes de que su mente consciente hiciera la conexión.

Lo cierto es que el cuerpo es una valiosa fuente de información que a menudo obviamos. En demasiadas ocasiones, especialmente cuando nos enfrentamos a situaciones dolorosas o incómodas, nos refugiamos en la cabeza. Tratamos de entender lo que sentimos en vez de permitirnos sentirlo. Cada vez más tendemos a vivir desde la mente, a interactuar a través de pantallas. Parece que hemos olvidado que la piel es el vehículo que nos permite experimentar la vida. La intuición es un compendio de información que recogemos de forma inconsciente y que nos advierte de potenciales peligros y oportunidades.

Superpoderes y superhéroesEscucha a tu intuición. Te dirá todo lo que realmente necesitas saber”, Anthony D’Angelou

Cuando conocemos a una persona por primera vez, nos asalta una sensaciónparticular. Nos gusta o no nos gusta. Decidimos confiar en ella… o no. A veces, una simple mirada o un gesto particular del otro nos genera atracción o rechazo. La intuición funciona como una especie de sexto sentido. Llegados a este punto, vale la pena apuntar que algunas de las decisiones que más marcarán nuestra existencia no son racionales. Nuestra pareja. Nuestros hobbies. Lo que nos hace disfrutar. Tienen un beneficio porque nos generan placer, alegría, conexión. De no guiarnos por el instinto, para emparejarnos realizaríamos un cálculo de probabilidades más propio de la teoría matemática, donde sopesaríamos todas las cualidades y perspectivas de futuro de las personas susceptibles de comenzar una relación romántica con nosotros. Y ni siquiera así lograríamos garantías de un final feliz.

Lo cierto es que la intuición es una herramienta muy útil para navegar en nuestro particular mar de relaciones. Tal vez no seamos conscientes de cómo acumula información de cada pequeño movimiento, cambio de entonación o uso de distintas palabras. Pero nos susurra cómo se siente la persona que está delante nuestro. Nos informa de su estado de ánimo de sus necesidades e inquietudes. Cada vez que nos piden consejo, o nos plantean una situación para que demos nuestra opinión, conectamos con la empatía e intuimos lo que puede necesitar esa persona.

Para activar nuestra capacidad intuitiva, tenemos que empezar por despertar nuestra percepción. Escucharnos nos lleva a escuchar más a los demás, y eso nutre cada una de las relaciones que mantenemos. Podemos practicar la atención, dar espacio y cabida a lo que sentimos en vez de catalogarlo y optar por esconderlo. Eso pasa por atrevernos a entrar más en contacto con nuestro cuerpo, prestando más atención a lo que percibimos a través de los sentidos. En este proceso, también resulta útil minimizar los automatismos, rompiendo con las inercias y las rutinas establecidas. Probar un itinerario diferente para ir a casa o al trabajo, o dar espacio en nuestra agenda a actividades nuevas y diferentes es un buen primer paso. Cuando hacemos algo distinto estamos más sensibles, más conectados con lo que sucede a nuestro alrededor. De ahí que una buena forma de cultivar la intuición sea asumir riesgos y salir de nuestra zona de comodidad.

Vivir desde la intuición puede dar miedo, porque estamos muy apegados a nuestra mente racional y dejarla a un lado nos hace sentir que perdemos el control. Lo que nos dicta nuestro interior no siempre va en la línea de lo que proponen las convenciones sociales. Pero merece la pena darle un voto de confianza. Cada vez que algo en nuestro interior nos dice ‘creo que tengo que hacer esto’, se abre una puerta que nos lleva a una nueva aventura. No en vano, la intuición es un superpoder. No nos transforma en superhéroes, pero nos convierte en protagonistas de nuestra propia vida. Nos ofrece capacidad de influencia, autoconocimiento y comprensión del mundo en el que vivimos. Para potenciarla, antes de tomar una decisión podemos tratar de sentirla además de pensarla. Escuchar a nuestro corazón, a nuestras entrañas, al instinto que habita en nuestro interior. Apostar por la intuición supone un ejercicio de valentía. Ser uno mismo, en los tiempos que corren, no siempre resulta popular. Pero es la única manera de vivir una vida auténtica.

La Intuición ..-